Latest UpdatesHealthWorld Tuberculosis (TB) Day : All you need to know about Tuberculosis

World Tuberculosis (TB) Day : All you need to know about Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). World’s one fourth population has been infected by MTB. TB has been one of the leading cause of deaths in poor people.
Infection of TB is majorly classified into pulmonary (infection in lungs) and extra pulmonary (infection outside lungs). Although this bacteria can prevail in any part of body but majorly is seen in lungs. So here is everything you should know about pulmonary TB.


It spreads via droplets of contaminated person through Air , spit, cough, sneeze, breath.
There are certain risk factors associated with TB such as: Chronic smoking (due to tobacco); in HIV/AIDS patients, malnutrition, immunocompromised state. People in close contact with infected patients are more likely to get TB.


When MTB reaches the lungs, it is engulfed by your immunity cells. But this mycobacterium has mycolic acid which helps in protection from toxins produced by our immune cells to kill MTB. it then reproduces inside the cell which engulfed it and damages that area of the lung killing immune cells and making a focus which can bee seen in X-ray.


Cough for more than 2 weeks; low grade fever; night sweats, loss of appetite leading to weightloss, blood in sputum, fatigue are some features of TB infection.
Usually TB is diagnosed with chest X-ray and sputum examination.


TB treatment has a long course of 6(2+6) months in India with antibiotics and other medicines. Theses include Isoniazid, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol majorly. But TB can be Multi Drig resistant as well due to which doctors follow a different approach after 2 months of initial treatment when effects of medicine don’t come out to be desirable.


There are vaccinations available for prevention of TB. Most importantly BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccine is given at birth for prevention of MTB infection. The government has a National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP) for eliminating TB in the country.


MTB communicable infection and common in unhygienic, malnourished, immunocompromised patients and poverty prone areas. It can be cured easily if treated sincerely. It does take a lot of time, effort, and medicines to treat but now since it is getting multi drug resistant, it becomes quite essential to prevent and eliminate it.

– Special Story by Dr. Pramiti Rastogi

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